Friday, July 3, 2020

Network Forensics in Cloud Computing Essay - 1100 Words

Network Forensics in Cloud Computing (Essay Sample) Content: Network Forensics in the CloudStudentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s NameInstitutional AffiliationDateIntroductionCloud computing presents many favourable economic and technological opportunities for the future thereby being arguably the most discussed and attended to information technology (Peterson, Shenoi, 2009). However, customers remain reluctant to use this technology for the challenges it poses to their security and the risk of the unknown. The Cloud Service Providers buoy up the perception of not letting users see whatever is behind the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"virtual curtainà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ and to this regard the ability to carry out digital investigations may be less efficient.The challenges of performing network forensics are presented due to the decentralization nature of data processing and lack of physical servers making the traditional approaches redundant. The examined challenges in network forensics in cloud infrastructures are as below;Internal StaffingThe expertise required to han dle sophisticated cloud forensic crimes is lacking in many institutions since most investigations are conducted by digital forensic experts using conventional tools and procedures applied traditionally. Laws and regulations are slowly evolving with respect to swiftly changing cloud technologies (Peterson, Shenoi, 2013).Data CollectionThe forensic data accessed is dependent on the cloud model that is implemented in every service and deployment model. For instance; Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) clients have a comparatively unrestricted access to the statistics forensic investigators consider sufficient. On the other hand, the clients to software as a service (SaaS) will be provide with limited or no access to such information.This limited access to forensic information means that users of systems have limited knowledge and control of the physical locations of their data. The providers of cloud service omit the terms of use that would assist forensic preparedness of the cloud ser vice (DeFranco, 2013). This limited access to metadata and log files by customers also reduces the ability to carry à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ out real time monitoring and auditing.Live ForensicsThe spread of mobile endpoints is a challenge for the collection of evidence and recovery of data and this is due to the impact of a crime, extensive number of resources linked to the cloud, and the workload of an investigation being considerable. The traditional forensics faces the challenge of disparate log formats and this is aggravated by cloud since there is prevalence of proprietary log formats and it holds large volumes of data logs.Since deleted data is sensitive to forensic investigations then remote access is hardly possible when the customer deletes data and there is no mapping. The challenge therefore presented here is to recover the data deleted so as to ascertain ownership of the deleted information and the use of the information for cloud event reconstruction in the cloud.Virtualized Enviro nmentsThe replication and distribution of resources provides computational and information redundancies in cloud computing. A hypervisor, which is an equivalent to a kernel in a traditional operating system provides and monitors the instances of servers run as virtual machines. Difficulties arise when there is no transparency in data mirroring over numerous machines in different jurisdictions. Regulations and laws might be violated due to unclear information laws in different jurisdictions. Precise geographical location of a piece of data is difficult to be provided by the cloud service providers.External Dependency LinksEach individual link in the dependency chain should be investigated and since correlation across the cloud service providers is a task any slight disruption among the parties could lead to complications. The policies, procedures, and agreements that concerns cross à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ provider forensic investigations are virtually absent.Segregation of EvidenceDifferent inst ances running on a single physical machine are isolated in the cloud and from each other through virtualization. This being, neighbours of an instance act as if they are on separate hosts and have no more access to the instance than any other host available on the internet.The bottle à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬ neck is posed during investigations when law enforcement agencies and Cloud Service Providers need to segregate resources without the breach of confidentiality of other customers sharing the infrastructure. In addition, identity cover up is aided by the easy to use feature leading to weak registration and encourages anonymity (Voeller, 2011).On the other hand, there are numerous opportunities presented that forensic investigators can use as leverage for further advancements. These might include;Data ProfusionTechnologies such as the Amazon Simple DB and Amazon S3 store objects multiple times in multiple availability zones on the first write. The further replication of these objects minimizes the risk of failure due to bit rot and device unavailability and also limiting the likelihood of vital evidence being totally deleted.Flexibility and scalabilityThe use of resources in cloud computing is dynamic and can be scaled also applying to network forensics. For instance; cloud computing allows all-inclusive logging without compromise on performance through essentially unlimited pay per use storage. This also increases the efficiency of querying, searching, and indexing...

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Francesco Petrarch a great poet and best know as the...

Francesco Petrarch a great poet and best know as the founder for Humanism in 1341 reconciled Christianity and classical and Roman Greek thought in his writings and revived interest in what had been dismissed as the pagan past starting the period called the RENAISSANCE or â€Å"rebirth†. The state of focusing less on God ´s interest and more on human’s interest was called the Humanism. Renaissance art was based on renewed study of the art of antiquity and of nature (Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists (1550).) Mainly as in the essay â€Å" Civilizations of the Renaissance† by Jacob Burkhdart argues, in the Medieval times the focus was religion salvation but during the Renaissance, Humanism and the need for individuals to reach their highest†¦show more content†¦Moreover rich merchants living in Florence like the Medici family maintain Florence ´s strength up always. I believe that there are always people with talent everywhere , the problem is that not everyone is able take part of the activities they want because of financial problems, and here comes the Medici family. They financed building of cathedrals, the best artists painting them, schools and supported art. Its important to emphasize that thanks to the economic and political changes in Italy during the Renaissance there was a dominoe effect all across Europe. Arts were one if the main influence in the Renaissance, enriching the human potential and magnifying men had a profound impact on the development of Europe . These time was were the greatest contributors for the arts expressed themseleves. The Renaissance ´s infancy started with by Giotto and Cimabue in painting, Arnolfo di Cambio in architecture, and the Pisani in sculpture. Its adolescence continued with Masaccio, Donatello, and Brunelleschi, and ‘Maturity’ begun with Leonardo da Vinci and culminated with the model of the uomo universal, Michelangelo. The Renaissance in Italy ended in the mid 16th Century, but the influence ideas, and ideals of the Renaissance remained and encouraged civilians not to conform but to make new changes. An openness in the mind of the people and a differentShow MoreRelatedCulture Of Italy : Italy1028 Words   |  5 Pages Culture of Italy INTRODUCTION: Some of you may think about the people of Italy as typical Italians running around town eating pasta and drinking wine. Surprise, surprise, you’re right. Wouldn’t you be doing the same thing if you lived in this gorgeous country? For Italians, it’s simple, eating and drinking is a part of their culture. It is what they know. All eating and drinking aside, for now, as most of you know Italy is located in Europe. It has a population size of 32 million people to whomRead More Italy Essay627 Words   |  3 PagesItaly Italy, is a boot shaped country in south-south eastern Europe. Italy, also known as the Italian Republic, is one of the seven most industrialized countries in the world. This lineup includes: United States, Russia, Germany, England, Japan, China and Italy. Italy is about the size of North Carolina and it has a population of around thirty-seven million people as of 1991. An interesting fact about the population of Italy is that it is neither growing nor shrinking. During the lastRead MoreItaly s Culture Of Italy1914 Words   |  8 Pagesthe beautiful country, better known as Italy. Italy is known, to many, for its scenic landscapes and is said to be rich in both cultural and historical significance. While for others, Italy is better known for its worldwide contributions of such things as; Ferraris, Fiats, designer fashion, and world class wines. So I ask you, with just these little tidbits of information to go off of, should someone, interested in starting a business abroad, look to Italy to begin their adventure? There are severalRead MoreItaly : A Country Of Italy1380 Words   |  6 PagesINTRO The beautifully known country of Italy had been a modern nation state for hardly half-century and the Kingdom of Italy was not declared until 1861. King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia, after the efforts of the great Italian statesman Camillo Benso di Cavour and the military campaigns of Giuseppe Garibaldi. â€Å"The young state of Italy faced many problems in the late 19th and early 20th centuries† (Sailus, 2016). The split nature of its beginnings caused massive differences in terms of regionalRead MoreFood in Italy4322 Words   |  18 PagesIntroduction There is a saying that states ‘one either lives to eat or eats to live’ and Italy as a country is ruled by the former. Italy is a culture that is rich and saturated in their traditions of cooking. They take pride in their food and live by the credo that food is only used if it is fresh, local and in season. There has been much debate on what defines Italian food and through research one can see that Italian food is not typical of a specific dish, rather that each region offers a newRead MoreThe History of Italy2004 Words   |  9 PagesItaly is a country that has gone through many changes throughout its history. It has faced many obstacles but has remained nationalistic and eager for unification. The political history of Italy is quite extensive. The Greeks were the first to settle in Italy and established colonies in the southern part of the country and in Sicily. There was not a sense of political reality as much as there was a civilization (Windows on Italy- History). While the Greeks controlled the south the Gauls, orRead MoreCountry Profile Italy813 Words   |  3 PagesItaly Italy falls on the map straight across the North Atlantic Ocean from the a United States. It is a long peninsula in the shape of a boot. It is surrounded by France, Switzerland, Austria, and Slovenia. The Apennine Mountains form the peninsulas backbone; while the Alps help form Italys northern boundary. The largest of its many northern lakes is Garda. Lake Garda is around 142 square miles. The Po is the name of Italys principal river. It flows from the Alps in the west across the LombardRead MoreThe Unification Of Germany And Italy838 Words   |  4 Pagesof Germany and Italy was centered around the belief of nationalism. Nationalism is the belief that one’s greatest loyalty should not be to a king or an empire but to a nation of people who share a common culture and history. The nation will then become a nation-state when it has its independent government. Bonds that will create a nation state are nationality, language, culture, and religion. Germany and Italy both went to drastic measures to unify their countries In 1815, Italy as divides afterRead MoreThe Success Of The Unification Of Italy1472 Words   |  6 Pageswillingness and cooperation are needed. All of those were crucial for the unification of Italy, but moreover it was the two men that have contributed the most; Count Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi. They were completely different. Cavour was the leading strategic power behind the unification and Garibaldi was the national hero inspiring the masses. It cannot be denied that the success of the unification of Italy depended on both of them. Although Cavour was the leading figure in the Italian UnificationRead MoreItaly Swot Analysis1732 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction 1 Strength Italy is situated is the center of the Mediterranean Sea. The main strength of geographical location is that Italy belongs to the coasts of four different seas (Adriatic Sea, Ionian Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Ligurian Sea). There are two large mountain ranges in Italy: Alps and Apennines. It is a big plus for tourism sector of the country. Tourism is one of the fastest growing and profitable sectors of the national economy. Italian climate is very different.

Friday, May 15, 2020

It Sometimes Can Be Very Hard When Trying To Understand

It sometimes can be very hard when trying to understand the roles and responsibilities an ancient Egyptian woman has, mainly because there is not much information about woman that is not biased. Luckily information can be found in tombs or through religious documentation. It is also worth noting that these writings did not include any emotion, however, this is typical for Egyptians anyways. In Egypt, people wrote only to keep a record of events, not to tell a story. Men who were wealthy and had the advantage of being schooled were the ones who wrote down these records of events. Because of this, an individual would not find any writings that came from a person who belonged to the lower class. When it s comes to studying ancient†¦show more content†¦These women were given the opportunity to control any and all of her assets for as long as she lived. The tombs that was spoken of earlier in this paper were used to depict many scenes of women who were free to do and say what they pleased. These drawing even show how involved they were in their partner s business transactions and accomplishing their own. They are shown to be at many important events with their husbands that would not have been allowed in other societies, such as watching their men hunt and sitting beside them for the meal that followed. An ancient Egyptian women s main goal and responsibility was to be a good mother and nurturer and to be the head of the family in a sense in order to keep the family strong and close. Family was very important to Egyptian women and they spent a lot of time and effort creating a solid foundation of a family because she knew they depended on it. These women have been shown doing housework such as cleaning and cooking, however, they also were given the opportunity to hire other workers to help them. Their husbands even worked with their wives to keep the home clean and in decent shape. Ancient Egyptian women also had the responsibility of making sure their ancestor s tombs remained clean and also took the time to send prayers for those who have passed already. The reason why being married was so sacred in ancient Egyptian society is because theyShow MoreRelatedAp Calculus Ab Topic Is Solving Limits986 Words   |  4 Pagesextremely difficult for me, so I was happy to find a topic that was somewhat easy for me to understand. I know that a limit is the value that a function or sequence approaches as the input or index approaches some x-value. To solve most limits, I had to use six basic properties of limits: the sum rule, the difference rule, the product rule, the constant multiple rule, the quotient rule, and power rule. Sometimes I had to use substitution, factor the limit first, use the conjugate method, or simplifyRead MoreGlee Is a Hoax 1345 Words   |  5 PagesYou’re walking through SIUE halls in peck hall, and then someone just jumps out singing and dancing on this joyous occasion. Does something like that really happen? No! There is a lot of hard work that goes into something like that, and glee portrays it all wrong. All the hard work that goes into it like: cleaning the choreography, learning the voice parts, and the many hours of practice. In a recent article by spark notes, in reality 90% of choir kids are theater geeks and really want to helpRead More Importance of Setting Goals Essay608 Words   |  3 Pages The Importance of Setting Goals Setting goals is the most important thing you can do in your life. Without goals you are going to have no direction, no ambition to be successful, no drive to stay in school, and trouble finding a career that will provide for you. Without these three things, achieving your goals is going to be one of the toughest tasks in the years to come. When setting direction to success you must make good choices on the path you are going to choose. The wrong path will put youRead MoreThe Reflection Of Collabortion975 Words   |  4 PagesAs a group of developing leaders, we understand the importance of collaboration and having a common purpose in whatever it is that we are leading. We know that in order to be an effective leader it is critical that you are able to work with others to work towards a goal that you all want to achieve. Sometimes, however, this is easier said than done. People struggle with these two concepts all the time and the question is why? The idea of working with others can be frightening. The fear of rejectionRead MoreReflection On Who Are You1125 Words   |  5 Pagesgrows and progresses through life. Who we think we are might look one way in high school, another in college, and change again when we retire. As the answer to this question changes with growth, personal goals, strengths, weaknesses, and unders tandings will also change. It is important that an individual reflect on the self in every stage of life to understand themselves. When reflecting on the question of life, I think that everyone is born neutral – not necessarily a blank slate, but neutral. NatureRead MoreAnalyzing The Findings Of International Students Challenging Experiences During The American Classroom Setting On Higher Education1587 Words   |  7 Pagesanalyzing the interviews, the following themes emerged: The Discussion is in American Culture, Do Students Understand When I’m Talking?, American Professors Aren’t Controlling and Organized, Professors’ Communication is Strict. The Discussions are in American Culture Both of the participants had a difficulty trying to follow some discussions because it was cultural based. They had a hard time contributing to the discussion because they didn’t know how to fully articulate their words in order toRead MoreBarriers Of Communication And The Barrier1502 Words   |  7 PagesBarriers to communication -A barrier is when things stops to go through. There are several types of communication barriers; this causes it to be active. If the first and second types of barriers occur it means that the communication hasn’t gone so well. Sometimes it is not easy to understand and recognise. If they have used skills to understand the communication cycle, it could help them to understand how to communicate effectively. If the communication goes well it helps people trust in relationship’sRead MoreA Short Note On Depression Disorder And Depression Essay1471 Words   |  6 Pagesfor you so much and I hate that I cause pain to those I care about. S o I’m writing this to hopefully say things in a clearer way, to say what I want and what I mean to say without getting confused or overwhelmed trying to express myself. More importantly I hope it allows you to understand my thoughts and actions in this incident and also on a day to day basis in my life. I pretty sure I’ve told you it all but in case I missed anything, I thought now would be a good time to list out everything IRead MoreEssay on The Castle By Franz Kafka647 Words   |  3 Pages To live is not just to exist. For one to exist one must live, explore, and learn about life’s ways. For some existence may be a hard thing to achieve in life. The Castle, by Franz Kafka depicts the meaning of life and existence, showing that human nature can make one’s life a difficult journey. In the novel, Kafka shows that life is never the way it seems and will always have loose ends.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Such a journey life is, especially for K. wondering around looking for a place to which he belonged, somewhereRead MoreMy Weakness Is My Strength 785 Words   |  4 Pageshas always been my mouth. My mother would say to my teachers, her friends, and co-workers, â€Å"I don’t understand why my daughter talks so much, because I am a quiet person and she obviously didn’t pick up the obsession to talk from me.† I am not exactly sure how this habit started because most of the people in my household are anti-social and do not like to communicate. My family thinks that I am a very odd person because I am extremely different from anyone else they have met. Although, I look at my

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Symptoms And Symptoms Of Anxiety Disorders - 986 Words

Anxiety Out Line: Introduction: A) What if you woke up every morning B) What if you had impulsive C) affecting 40 million adults over the age of 18 Problem Statement: A) There are numerous kinds of anxiety disorders B) Everybody knows what it s like to feel anxious C) usually helpful emotion can do just the opposite Effects: A) Or the anxious feelings may be so uncomfortable B) . Anxiety disorders are the utmost common of all the mental health disorders C) Approximately 5.2 million people per year undergo from post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusion: Anxiety disorders are treatable, and the huge majority of people with an anxiety disorder can be helped with professional care. Speech: What if you woke up every morning with a feeling†¦show more content†¦People with GAD worry that a friendship is in danger if a missed phone call to a friend isn’t returned to them. Everybody knows what it s like to sense anxious -- the butterflies in your abdominal before a first date, the tension you feel when your boss is annoyed, and the way your heart pounds if you re in danger. Anxiety stirs you to action. It workings you up to face a threatening condition. It makes you study harder for that exam, and retains you on your toes when you re making a speech. In common, it assistances you cope. Nonetheless if you have an anxiety disorder, this commonly helpful emotion can do just the opposite -- it can keep you from coping and can disturb your daily life. There are some types of anxiety disorders, each with their own separate features. An anxiety disorder may make you feel anxious most of the time, deprived of any seeming reason. Or the anxious feelings may be so painful that to avoid them you may stop some daily activities. Or you may have occasional bouts of anxiety so penetrating they frighten and immobilize you. Anxiety disorders are the furthermost common of all the rational health disorders. Well-thought-out in the category of anxiety disorders are: Widespread Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Agoraphobia, Communal Phobia, Obsessive Compulsive Illness, Specific Phobia, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Severe Stress Disorder. Anxiety disorders as

Akeelah and the Bee Essay - 2422 Words

Akeelah Anderson, an eleven year old African American student from the Crenshaw neighborhood of South Los Angeles, struggles to overcome the limitations of her environment in order to succeed in a national spelling bee competition. As our group discussed the film Akeelah and the Bee we first wanted to look at the themes the film presents. We originally thought of the more oblivious ones such as how race and socioeconomic class play apart in the film. We also started to notice that the film presented an idealized view of how one individual can transform a community. We came to am agreement that the film gives clear representations of both the traditional and progressive forms of education, but neglects to do anything to address the†¦show more content†¦It is important to recognize the flawed system in the movie. The traditional setting only teaches to standardized tests, and district demands. Therefore, there is little room for growth or potential learning for the students i n a struggling school environment. The students are forced to stay on the same track as everyone else and are unable to pursue their own interests, but Akeelah is given the opportunity to recieve a different type of education than her peers. Once Akeelah is identified as a potential spelling talent, her education takes a notable shift towards a more progressive tradition. Though there are still relics of her old experience of education as conservative, her new experience is overwhelmingly progressive. Dr. Lariby promotes integration of a variety of subjects as Akeelah works on the spelling bee, assigning her authors like W.E.B Dubois and Nelson Mandela as vehicles to improve her knowledge of words. This integration is a major tenet of progressive education, as it â€Å"eradicates dualism† and â€Å"merges concepts that are traditionally kept distinct† (Archambault, 83). Along with eradicating dualism, Dr. Lariby forces AkeelahShow MoreRelatedAkeelah And The Bee By Akeelah987 Words   |  4 Pages Akeelah and the Bee is a story about an eleven-year-old girl who against the odds participated in a national spelling bee and won. She lived at home with her mother and three other siblings. Her mother spent most of her time working at the hospital trying to provide for the household. Akeelah’s mother knew that spelling was very important to Akeelah however, she did not let Akeelah participate because she felt she would not be able to support her. Akeelah mother did not want to see Akeelah hurtRead MoreAnalysis Of Akeelah And The Bee1018 Words   |  5 Pages2006 American made film, â€Å"Akeelah and the Bee† depicted not only characters in middle childhood experiencing the pursuit of knowledge, friendship and acceptance, but also their family members. Focusing on the eleven-year-old main character Akeelah who’s currently living in poverty with her three fellow siblings and mother, Ms. Anderson. The film emphasizes on her goal of winning the national Scripps spe lling bee as well as the parental development of her mother. Guiding Akeelah along this whirlwind journeyRead MoreAkeelah and the Bee - Essay3141 Words   |  13 PagesAkeelah and the Bee April 20, 2012 Identifying Information Akeelah is an eleven year old African American girl who lives in South Los Angeles being raised by her mother, Tanya, who father was killed when she was six years old. She is attending Crenshaw Middle School. She has three siblings and a niece and her mother works long hours to have extra money to support her family. Akeelah is a very smart an intelligent girl who loves to study and learn words. Presenting Problem Akeelah is grievingRead MoreStereotyping Is A Way For The Human Mind1940 Words   |  8 Pagesindividuality. Film: Akeelah and the Bee This movie tells a story about a young african american girl from south Los Angeles, who happens to be an amazing speller and the journey she embarks on in order to make it to the national spelling bee. Keke Palmer stars as eleven year old Akeelah, who is begging to fade into the background where she wont stand out. However, when the principal gives her an ultimatum, serve her punishment in detention, or compete in the school spelling bee, Akeelah has no choiceRead MoreReflective Reading1517 Words   |  7 Pagesdifferent countries pronounce letters differently than we do. Knowing the origin of a word helps with the spelling and pronunciation. My Reflective Paper 6 daughters related this concept to a movie they saw called Akeelah and the bee, which the movie was about a spelling bee. Overall, the girls never where bored with the games or the lessons, and ready to move on to CD 5 and 6. This paper documents the progress of my students using CD 5 and 6. As you know I am using my two daughters who areRead MoreCase Study : Strategic Alliance And Licensing Arrangement965 Words   |  4 Pagesvertical integration Starbucks improved coordination in supply chain and increased the greater market share and also secured distribution channels. Two growth initiatives that â€Å"Did not make any Sense† A. Promoting films such as Artic Tale and â€Å"Akeelah And the Bee† Concept: Conglomerate diversification: Diversifying into the industries unrelated to current one. (Textbook page 195) Starbucks has also sought out opportunities that are unrelated to its traditional product offerings. I also believe managingRead MoreStarbucks : Target Market And How Was Starbucks1218 Words   |  5 Pagesmovies. Even though Starbucks was aggressive and did all that they could do in marketing a movie, the movies just weren’t going to be able to attract the amount of people they wanted to reach. They used several tactics to market the first movie, Akeelah and the Bee, like having games and using sleeves for the coffee cups. Selling CDs was much easier because people would often hear the music playing before making the decision to purchase it. Maybe they could promote movies by making custom drinks like thisRead MoreWhy I Am A Friend1526 Words   |  7 Pagesone person the best isn’t going to fit me because it’s not mine to fit in the first pla ce. In other words, I discovered that I was battling to be who I thought I should have been. It wasn’t until a random Saturday night, watching the movie Akeelah and the Bee that I heard the wonderful words of writer Marianne Williamson, that essentially changed my life forever. The quote adapted from a passage in her book A Return To Love: Reflections on the Principles of A Course in Miracles, stated, â€Å"Our deepestRead MoreDiversification of Starbucks1445 Words   |  6 Pagesexample, Hear Music is the brand name of Starbucks’ retail music concept. Starbucks bought it in 1999. in 2002, they produced a starbucks opera album and in 2006, the company created starbucks entertainment, one of the producers of the 2006 firl Akeelah and the Bee. Retail stores heavily advertised the film before its release and sold the DVD. Starbucks also partnership with Apple to collaborate on selling music as part of ‘coffeehouse experience’. Customers would be able to browse the iTunes Store atRead MoreCase Study on the Success and Decline of Starbucks in the Last 10 Years6976 Words   |  28 Pages  chief   executive   officer   to   replace   the retiring   Orin   Smith.   It also acquired Ethos Water. (, 2011)   and the company created Starbucks Entertainment, EX: one of the producers of the 2006 film Akeelah and the Bee. ( and the Bee, 2011) In 2005 Starbucks announced the  fifth two†for†one stock split and opened some more stores in the  Bahamas, Ireland and Jordan.    The Year 2006 Starbucks launched   the   industry’s   first   paper   beverage   cup

The Fda Approval Process free essay sample

Approval Process One out of every 1000 medicine compounds that go to the lab test will go one to be tested on humans. The FDA has many phases and trials you have to go through to have a drug approved. It can take as long as twelve years to get a drug approved, and millions of dollars. The FDA approval process for drugs is very lengthy and requires significant funds to complete. The FDA was created by the Federal food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in 1938. The FDA does not test drugs, but the do a little research on the drugs (Lipsky, Sharp 362-67). Researchers have to enter applications for there new drug that are around 100,000 pages long. These applications can take up to two and half years to be reviewed. It can also take up twelve years for a drug to go from the lab to the shelf (Drugs Internet). The first thing a company does to get a drug approved is to test the drug on animals (Meyer, Robert J. We will write a custom essay sample on The Fda Approval Process or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page FDA’s Drug Approval Process). This process takes about three and a half years. The company will then put in a application with the FDA (Drugs Internet). When they test on animals they are testing to figure out the correct dosage. They are also figuring out how often you should take it and any short and long term effects of the new drug (â€Å"FDA Approval Process† Internet). After that they use the test data to develop a plan to test the drug on humans (Meyer, Robert J. FDA’s Drug Approval Process). After the drug application is approved by the FDA; the FDA makes the drug go through four phases of testing on humans. In the first phase the company uses twenty to eighty healthy people to establish the drug’s safety and profile. In this phase they are looking for any effects on humans and any benefits. These volunteers are watched and are separated into groups based on what happens to them during a one year period. They start separating people into groups when they were testing cancer treatment (Drugs Internet). In the next phase of the process the company pays 100 to 300 patient volunteers (Drugs Internet). This phase is important because it gathers more information about the drugs effects on a larger group of people, unlike the first phase. Also in this phase you are mostly likely going to find out if the drug fails or not. This could be because the drug’s side effects are found to be to server to benefit the human. The drug could also be found not to work as planned (â€Å"Understanding Clinical Trials† Internet). This process usually takes up to two years (Drugs Internet). In phase three of this process 1000 to 3000 patient in clinics or hospitals are watch to ensure the drugs safety. This phase is very important to companies because they test the drug on a various types of patients other then the ones the drug was made for. They also use the information they get from this test for their marketing claims. This phase is different from other phases because patients in this phase can continue to take the drug before it hits the market if it is a lifesaving treatment (â€Å"Understanding Clinical Trials† Internet). This phase is the longest out of them all; it usually takes about three years (Drugs Internet). After the third step the company has to file another application with the FDA usually around 100,000 pages long. It usually takes the FDA two and a half years to review the application (Drugs Internet). In the finally phase is known as the post marketing surveillance procedure phase. The company continues to turn in reports about their drug to continue selling it on the market. These reports help them see how the product is doing after a long period of time. These studies are usually required by the authorities who regulate the selling of pharmaceutical drugs. But the can be required by the company of sponsors the drug. The reason for this might because they want to find a new market for the drug (Lipsky, Sharp 362-67). Presently there are thousands of ongoing clinical trials. These trials involved hundreds of thousands of subjects (Meyer, Robert J. FDA’s Drug Approval Process). There are eight primary regulations of the clinical investigator. The first one is to conduct or supervise the study. Secondly they have to conduct the study according to the approved protocol or research plan. Next they have to ensure that the institutional review board (IRB) has study and reviewed it, and approve it. Also they have to make sure it is functioning according to the FDA requirements. Then they have to obtain consent from the FDA. After that they have to maintain adequate and accurate records of study observations. Next they have to administer the drug only to the subjects under the investigator’s personal supervision. They also have to report everything to the sponsor adverse experiences that occurred during the investigation. Finally they report everything to the IRB including all problems involving risks to humans or others (Meyer, Robert J. FDA’s Drug Approval Process). The approval process to get a drug approve is very long and you have to use a lot of money to get them approve. Researcher can invest up to 12. 6 billion dollars a year in new drugs. Also this figure usually doubles every five years.